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UKSG publishes Insights in association with Ubiquity Press.

If accepted for publication in this peer-reviewed journal, your work will be open access and distributed under a CC BY Licence ( unless otherwise agreed before submission.

No article processing charges (APCs) are payable by the author; these are supported in full by UKSG.

Please note that the final published version is the version of record and that it will not be possible to update this. There is a discussion facility where comments may be included by the author or readers. Corrections can only be made after publication if there is a major factual error, and attention will be drawn to this by means of a corrigendum.

UKSG believes in fair and transparent publishing and fully supports the best practice guidelines issued by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), to which authors are referred for further information. Please see the COPE position statement for authors:

Submission of articles and other content

Please read the following notes before submitting material for possible publication and ensure that your contribution complies with the specifications. Then submit all material to the Editors electronically using the online submission form on the home page of the journal (

If your submission is unsolicited, please first check that you believe it suitable for the focus and scope of the journal (

If you have already registered as an author for the journal and have an account, please use your current log-in details. If you do not already have an author account, you will need to register to open an account (

You will then need to have the following content + metadata ready for submission:

  • article
  • abstract
  • title (or working title)
  • author’s name as you wish it to appear + names of co-authors (taking note of ‘Authorship’ guidelines below)
  • keywords: please select up to six
  • images (including author photo) and any other supplementary files
  • ORCID ID: if you do not have one, you are encouraged to register for one (a simple, very quick and free process) at, though this is not essential.


Please also make sure that you have considered everything in the following submission preparation checklist before submitting your article:

1. The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).

2. Any third-party-owned materials used have been identified with appropriate credit lines, and permission obtained from the copyright holder. Please read the section below on ‘Permissions’ for further details.

3. All DOIs for the references have been provided, when available.

4. Figures/images have a resolution of at least 150dpi (though 300dpi or above is preferred). Each file is no more than 20MB per file. The files are in one of the following formats: JPG, TIFF, GIF, PNG, EPS. (To maximize quality, the original source file is preferred.)

5. All Figures and Tables have been double-checked for accuracy. Failure to do this prior to publication may necessitate a public corrigendum.

6. You will need to have decided whether you or any co-authors have any ‘competing interests’ and will need to state whether or not you do. Please make sure you enter something in this field even if you have none. Further important information can be found here:


Once you have everything ready (see above) and you have checked that your submission complies with house style (see below), you may then submit your article.

The online submission process is quite clear and simple. On the submissions page ( either log in to your author account – if you have one – or register for an account and then log in. This will direct you to the user home page.

Click ‘new submission’ and follow the five-step process (1-start; 2-upload; 3-enter metadata; 4-upload supplementary files; 5-confirmation). This is based on the OJS system and if you are not familiar with this, you may find this short online tutorial helpful (not specifically for Insights, so would suggest perhaps starting at 1:00, one minute into the tutorial): Module 6: Submitting an Article ( may be liable to slight change when the platform migrates to OJS 3 later in 2019.

If you have any queries prior to submission, or if you have any trouble with the submission process, please contact the UKSG Publications Associate:

Ally Souster | E-mail: | Tel: +44 (0)1993 773999

or the Ubiquity Press support team if your problem is more technical:

E-mail: .

Word count, journal house style (stylistic and bibliographic requirements) – main points


Please provide an abstract of 150-200 words (in addition to the word count for the article) when submitting an article. The more accurate and informative the abstract, the more likely the article is to be read. The abstract should be added to the metadata when making the initial online submission but please also include it at the top of your article.

Article length

Article length is slightly flexible according to content.

Please aim to supply 2,500-3,000 words for case studies, commentaries, reviews and opinion pieces. Research-based articles may be longer, typically around 4,000 words (though the editors are happy to consider longer articles if the subject and content demand this).

Key Issues tend to be shorter, around 1,000-2,000 words.

A note about research papers


If data, structured methods or code used in a research project have been made openly available, a data accessibility statement should be added (above the list of references at the end of the article) to inform the reader how/where to access these files. This should include the repository location and the DOI linking to it. Read our reproducibility guide for more information on best practice and maximizing the impact of your open data.

If data used in the research project has not been made available, a statement confirming this should be added, along with reasoning why.

The journal's data policy is available on the Editorial Policies page under ‘Reproducibility – Open Data’.


The authors you list should accurately reflect who did the work. Please do not list guest, ghost or gift writers. For COPE guidelines on this and other matters of responsible authorship, which UKSG endorses, see 6.3 of:  


The author is responsible for obtaining all permissions required prior to submission of the manuscript. Permission and owner details should be mentioned for all third-party content included in the submission or used in the research.

If a method or tool is introduced in the study, including software, questionnaires and scales, the licence this is available under and any requirement for permission for use should be stated. If an existing method or tool is used in the research, it is the author’s responsibility to check the licence and obtain the necessary permissions. Statements confirming that permission was granted should be included in the Acknowledgements at the end.


Articles should be written in good English: American English (where the author is American or Canadian) or British English are accepted, but not a mixture of both.

Note that Insights’ authors and readers live all around the world and operate in a range of language and cultural contexts, so please ensure that any country- or region-specific text (including names of local organizations, for example), is briefly explained in the text to make it accessible for this international readership.

Text should be submitted as a Microsoft Word document if possible. Other formats, if compatible with Word, are acceptable, e.g. OpenOffice, RTF or WordPerfect document files. Text should be keyed without layout apart from paragraph breaks. The body of the submission should be structured in a logical way so that it is easy to follow. A clear introductory section should be given that allows non-specialists in the subject some understanding of and background to the issue(s) involved. Sub- or section headings may then follow (in lower case, ranged left, each heading on a separate line). Note these will also appear alongside the article when published and will be individually clickable, so you may wish to bear this in mind when suggesting the wording for them. Please note our reference style below under ‘References and notes’.

Side/sub/section headings

A combination of ‘A’, ‘B’ and ‘C’ section headings may be used. Whilst it is helpful if these can be distinguished in some way, there is no need to use the final colour scheme mentioned below, which is for information only.

‘A’ section headings – ranged left, bold, upper and lower case [will appear in darker blue]

e.g. Reconsideration of publisher business models

‘B’ section headings – ranged left, bold, upper and lower case [will appear slightly smaller than ‘A’ headings and in turquoise]

e.g. Growth in content correlated to growth in usage

‘C’ sub-headings – ranged left, bold, upper and lower case [will appear in normal body text size, in bold italics

e.g. Lists


We have two list styles, either bullet points or numbered points.

Bulleted lists (following on below a colon) do not need to begin with initial capitals or end with full stops, though the final point should end in a full stop:

  • first bullet point
  • second bullet point. Points can have a full point in the middle if made up of two phrases/sentences but still don’t need one at the end unless the final one
  • third and final bullet point.

Numbered lists may begin with initial caps but do not need to end with a full stop unless they form complete sentences. The final one in a list should end in a full stop.

Grammar and spelling

Please do not agonize too long over precise spellings as your text will be checked by a copy-editor who is familiar with house style. English grammar rules should be applied if possible.

Note house style is not to use ‘serial’ or ‘Oxford’ commas in simple lists (so: red, white and blue, not: red, white, and blue).

The UKSG spelling authority is OED Online, which tends towards the use of z in preference

to s for certain words (such as ‘realize’, ‘organization’, ‘maximize’) but is otherwise

compatible with most other reputable UK dictionaries. Note ‘e’ (for electronic) is followed by a hyphen with no capitalization unless at the beginning of a sentence, in which case only the E is capitalized (so: E-mail is not the best way to promote an e-journal, not: EMail is not the best way to promote an eJournal).


Footnotes should not be used. Please note our reference/note style section below (which is followed by further general house-style guidelines)

References/notes with examples

Insights follows the ‘notes and bibliography’ system from the Chicago Manual of Style (Edition 17) for its reference style. However, we do not require authors to provide an actual bibliography, only ‘notes’ (sometimes referred to as ‘full notes’) for first use of citations and a short version for repeat references. Please use this style, noting also the points and examples below.

Do not use URL hyperlinks in the text (either embedded or in parenthesis), only at the end as references/end-notes. Documents that include these will be returned to authors for them to amend. Note that it is never sufficient to provide only a URL; as far as they can be determined, the full facts of publication should always be recorded first.

Sources are to be cited in numbered end-notes. Each note corresponds to a raised (superscript) number in the text. ‘Note’ form (rather than bibliography) is the style to follow for Insights. In the ‘References/notes’ (the numbered list at the end), numbers are normally full size, not raised, and followed by a full stop. (Superscript numbers in both places – the typical default setting in the note-making feature of a word processor – are also acceptable.)

For multiple citations and multiple note references, more than one note/reference number should not appear in the same place (such as5,6); however, a single note (in the end-note list) can contain more than one citation or comment. In the list at the end, the citations are separated by semicolons and must appear in the same order as the text material (whether works, quotations, or whatever) to which they pertain. Take care to avoid any ambiguity as to what is documenting what.

Note numbers should not reappear out of sequence.

Citation management tools (such as EndNote or Zotero) work best for citing recently published books and journal articles and other common publication formats. The variety of sources typically cited in a scholarly work, on the other hand, usually precludes an acceptable result from software alone. Authors are therefore strongly encouraged to review their citations for consistency, accuracy and completeness before submitting their final manuscripts. In line with Chicago recommendations, please:

  • double-check your data. Make sure authors’ names, titles of works, dates, etc. are accurate and that they are entered in the appropriate fields. Check also for missing or redundant data. You will need to do this whether you entered the data yourself or exported the citation from a library catalogue or other resource
  • double-check your citations. Once a source citation has been inserted in your manuscript, make sure it is correctly formatted. Things to look for include errant punctuation or capitalization and missing or superfluous data. Enter corrections in the citation management application (or adjust its settings, as applicable) and double-check the results in the manuscript.


Some examples are given below (including shortened versions which may be used for repeat references).

Journal articles

For articles consulted online, include a URL or the name of the database. Many journal articles list a DOI, which forms a permanent URL and begins with: This URL is preferable to the URL that appears in your browser’s address bar. Examples:


1. Susan Satterfield, “Livy and the Pax Deum,” Classical Philology 111, no. 2 (April 2016): 170.

2. Shao-Hsun Keng, Chun-Hung Lin, and Peter F. Orazem, “Expanding College Access in Taiwan, 1978–2014: Effects on Graduate Quality and Income Inequality,” Journal of Human Capital 11, no. 1 (Spring 2017): 9–10,

3. Peter LaSalle, “Conundrum: A Story about Reading,” New England Review 38, no. 1 (2017): 95, Project MUSE.

Shortened notes

4. Satterfield, “Livy,” 172–73.

5. Keng, Lin, and Orazem, “Expanding College Access,” 23.

6. LaSalle, “Conundrum,” 101.

Journal articles often list several authors. If there are four or more authors, list only the first, followed by et al. (“and others”). Examples:


7. Rachel A. Bay et al., “Predicting Responses to Contemporary Environmental Change Using Evolutionary Response Architectures.” American Naturalist 189, no. 5 (May 2017): 465,

Shortened note

8. Bay et al., “Predicting Responses,” 466.




1. Zadie Smith, Swing Time (New York: Penguin Press, 2016), 315–16.

2. Brian Grazer and Charles Fishman, A Curious Mind: The Secret to a Bigger Life (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2015), 12.

Shortened notes

3. Smith, Swing Time, 320.

4. Grazer and Fishman, Curious Mind, 37.

Chapter or other part of an edited book


1. Henry David Thoreau, “Walking,” in The Making of the American Essay, ed. John D’Agata (Minneapolis: Graywolf Press, 2016), 177–78.

Shortened note

2. Thoreau, “Walking,” 182.


For books consulted online, include a URL or the name of the database. For other types of e-book, name the format. If no fixed page numbers are available, cite a section title or a chapter or other number in the notes, if any (or simply omit). Examples:


1. Herman Melville, Moby-Dick; or, The Whale (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1851), 627,

2. Philip B. Kurland and Ralph Lerner, eds., The Founders’ Constitution (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987), chap. 10, doc. 19,

3. Brooke Borel, The Chicago Guide to Fact-Checking (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2016), 92, ProQuest Ebrary.

4. Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice (New York: Penguin Classics, 2007), chap. 3, Kindle.

Shortened notes

5. Melville, Moby-Dick, 722–23.

6. Kurland and Lerner, Founders’ Constitution, chap. 4, doc. 29.

7. Borel, Fact-Checking, 104–5.

8. Austen, Pride and Prejudice, chap. 14.

Pamphlets, reports, etc.

Pamphlets, corporate reports, brochures, and other freestanding publications are treated essentially as books. Data on author and publisher may not fit the normal pattern, but sufficient information should be given to identify the document. Examples:

1. Hazel V. Clark, Mesopotamia: Between Two Rivers (Mesopotamia, OH: Trumbull County Historical Society, 1957).

2. Lifestyles in Retirement, Library Series (New York: TIAA-CREF, 1996).

3. McDonald’s Corporation, 2014 Annual Report, March 2015,

News or magazine articles

Articles from newspapers or news sites, magazines, and the like are cited similarly. If you consulted the article online, include a URL or the name of the database. Examples:


1. Rebecca Mead, “The Prophet of Dystopia,” New Yorker, April 17, 2017, 43.

2. Farhad Manjoo, “Snap Makes a Bet on the Cultural Supremacy of the Camera,” New York Times, March 8, 2017,

3. Rob Pegoraro, “Apple’s iPhone Is Sleek, Smart and Simple,” Washington Post, July 5, 2007, LexisNexis Academic.

4. Tanya Pai, “The Squishy, Sugary History of Peeps,” Vox, April 11, 2017,

Shortened notes

5. Mead, “Dystopia,” 47.

6. Manjoo, “Snap.”

7. Pegoraro, “Apple’s iPhone.”

8. Pai, “History of Peeps.”

Blog posts and blogs

Blog posts are cited like online newspaper articles. Citations include the author of the post; the title of the post in quotation marks; the title of the blog in italics; the date of the post and a URL. The word ‘blog’ may be added (in parentheses) after the title of the blog (unless the word ‘blog’ is part of the title). Blogs that are part of a larger publication should also include the name of that publication. Examples:

1. Deb Amlen, “One Who Gives a Hoot,” Wordplay (blog), New York Times, January 26, 2015,

2. William Germano, “Futurist Shock,” Lingua Franca (blog), Chronicle of Higher Education, February 15, 2017,




1. Kory Stamper, “From ‘F-Bomb’ to ‘Photobomb,’ How the Dictionary Keeps Up with English,” interview by Terry Gross, Fresh Air, NPR, April 19, 2017, audio, 35:25,

Shortened note

2. Stamper, interview.

Theses or dissertations - Examples:


1. Cynthia Lillian Rutz, “King Lear and Its Folktale Analogues” (PhD diss., University of Chicago, 2013), 99–100.

Shortened note

2. Rutz, “King Lear,” 158.

Website content

It is often sufficient simply to describe web pages and other website content in the text (“As of May 1, 2017, Yale’s home page listed . . .”). If a more formal citation is needed, it may be styled like the examples below. For a source that does not list a date of publication or revision, include an access date (as in example note 2). Examples:


1. “Privacy Policy,” Privacy & Terms, Google, last modified April 17, 2017,

2. “About Yale: Yale Facts,” Yale University, accessed May 1, 2017,

3. Katie Bouman, “How to Take a Picture of a Black Hole,” filmed November 2016 at TEDxBeaconStreet, Brookline, MA, video, 12:51,

Shortened notes

4. Google, “Privacy Policy.”

5. “Yale Facts.”
6. Bouman, “Black Hole.”

Social media content

Citations of content shared through social media can usually be limited to the text (as in the first example below). A note may be added if a more formal citation is needed. In rare cases, a bibliography entry may also be appropriate. In place of a title, quote up to the first 160 characters of the post. Comments are cited in reference to the original post. Examples:


Conan O’Brien’s tweet was characteristically deadpan: “In honor of Earth Day, I’m recycling my tweets” (@ConanOBrien, April 22, 2015).


1. Pete Souza (@petesouza), “President Obama bids farewell to President Xi of China at the conclusion of the Nuclear Security Summit,” Instagram photo, April 1, 2016,

2. Chicago Manual of Style, “Is the world ready for singular they? We thought so back in 1993,” Facebook, April 17, 2015,

Shortened notes

3. Souza, “President Obama.”

4. Michele Truty, April 17, 2015, 1:09 p.m., comment on Chicago Manual of Style, “singular they.”

Personal communications

Personal communications, including e-mail and text messages and direct messages sent through social media, are usually cited in the text or in a note. Example:


1. Sam Gomez, Facebook message to author, August 1, 2017.

Finally, the substance of a note that applies to more than one location must be repeated under a new note number. Example:



Only when we gather the work of several scholars—Walter Sutton’s explications of some of Whitman’s shorter poems; Paul Fussell’s careful study of structure in “Cradle”; S. K. Coffman’s close readings of “Crossing Brooklyn Ferry” and “Passage to India”; and the attempts of Thomas I. Rountree and John Lovell, dealing with “Song of Myself” and “Passage to India,” respectively, to elucidate the strategy in “indirection”—do we begin to get a sense of both the extent and the specificity of Whitman’s forms.1


1. Sutton, “The Analysis of Free Verse Form, Illustrated by a Reading of Whitman,” Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 18, no. 2 (December 1959): 241–54; Fussell, “Whitman’s Curious Warble: Reminiscence and Reconciliation,” in The Presence of Walt Whitman, ed. R. W. B. Lewis (New York: Columbia University Press, 1962), 28–51; Coffman, “ ‘Crossing Brooklyn Ferry’: A Note on the Catalog Technique in Whitman’s Poetry,” Modern Philology 51, no. 4 (May 1954): 225–32; Coffman, “Form and Meaning in Whitman’s ‘Passage to India,’ ” PMLA 70, no. 3 (June 1955): 337–49; Rountree, “Whitman’s Indirect Expression and Its Application to ‘Song of Myself,’ ” PMLA 73, no. 5 (December 1958): 549–55; and Lovell, “Appreciating Whitman: ‘Passage to India,’ ” Modern Language Quarterly 21, no. 2 (June 1960): 131–41.

Further house-style guidelines


When in doubt, don’t capitalize!

Proper names (people, places, etc.) should be capitalized – but avoid the ‘pompous capital’ (so: Company chairs earn big salaries, not: Company Chairs earn big salaries; NB: At Leeds University the Librarian said … is correct [because this is a specific librarian and refers back to a proper noun – not just any librarian], but: The librarians in the audience said … is correct [when referring to librarians in general].)


Use the currency symbol followed immediately by the amount, e.g. £100.

Use £ for British Pound Sterling, € for Euro, e.g. £50, €100.

Use US$, C$, NZ$, A$ to distinguish between the different dollar currencies.


Authors may use either words or figures to represent large figures (e.g. one million or

1,000,000) as long as the usage is consistent within the article.

For numbers:

0-10: use words rather than figures, except for when it is a part of a data set or presented in a table.

11 onwards: use digits.

Symbols are permitted within the main text and data sets. For example, percentages (%) are allowed.


Quotation marks

Please use single quotation marks except for quotes within another speech, in which case double quotation marks may be used. Always use single quotation marks for anything that is not reporting speech, e.g: a high level of ‘triangulation’ is involved; the conference title is ‘Access and resource sharing’ (unless already appearing in a section that is in single quotes, in which case they will need to be in double quotes to distinguish them).

These rules do not apply to end-notes, which need to be in Chicago 17th ed style – see References/notes section above for examples.

Abbreviations and acronyms

This is slightly flexible, but please spell out acronyms on first use, indicating the abbreviation in parentheses immediately thereafter, as in: World Health Organization (WHO). Use the acronym for subsequent references. Where a term is used only once (in the abstract or in the main text), it is not essential to include the acronym or abbreviation, unless it is felt that this is useful, and just the full version may be used. There will be a link included to a full version of all the A&As mentioned in the article so if something very commonly known by the acronym (for example, COUNTER) is used, there is no need to spell this out as the full version will be easy to discover. Note you do not need to artificially capitalize the first letters of words which have abbreviations, so:

text and data mining (TDM), not: Text and Data Mining (TDM).

In more conversational pieces (interviews, etc.), it is fine to use just a well-known abbreviation. You do not need to spell out abbreviations for US, UK, EU, UN and DC (as in Washington DC).


Any acknowledgements should be in a separate paragraph, placed after the main text but

before the reference list. See also the section on ‘Permissions’ above.


Illustrations are welcomed, but please ensure any necessary copyright clearance has been done. See below for technical details. It is important that the quality of all figures and photos is high. We cannot guarantee that they will appear exactly in the position suggested, due to layout constraints, so

they must each be referred to in the text. Please read the following carefully as illustrations may be just as important as text and may need as much time spent on them. Ensure that they are accurate and that Table totals and percentages all add up to the correct amount.


These can be just as important as the text and need to be of high quality, saved for reproduction as follows. Please submit figures, graphics, photos or PowerPoint slides as clearly file-named separate image files (at least 150dpi, though 300dpi or above is preferred). Each file should be no more than 20MB, in one of the following formats: JPG, TIFF, GIF, PNG. To maximize quality, the original source file is preferred.

Labels and text within figures should be in a simple sans serif font (such as Arial or Gill) and large enough to be clearly readable. Use lower case in preference to upper case for labelling where there is a choice, and use black if possible rather than pale colours for labels.



Colour is available so it is preferred that figures themselves (charts, graphs, etc.) should be in colour. As a guide to placement (only), low-resolution versions of figures may also be inserted into the document, or placement can be indicated by <Figure 1>. Please supply captions for all figures, separate from the image files, and refer to the figures in the text, for example: ‘(see Figure 3)’ or ’ ... as shown in Figure 3’. Remove any branding, though a credit line may be included if required. It is important that graphs should be understandable without having to read the text so ensure axes are clearly labelled, a key had been provided if needed, etc.

Authors are encouraged to provide data behind charts, etc., as Insights supports the Joint Data Archiving Policy (JDAP). There is nowhere on the Ubiquity site to host supporting data so a link would be needed to a chosen data repository (such as Zenodo, for example).


Please place tables at the end of the Word document on separate pages. Use only one tab between columns. Indicate approximate placement in text by <Table 1>. Please supply captions for tables and refer to the tables in the text, for example: ‘(see Table 2)’ or ‘... as shown in Table 2’. Use lower case in preference. Table column headings may be in bold.

Photographs and author contact details

Photographs should be in colour and must be clear and sharp, the original of a reasonable

size (absolute minimum 4cm x 6cm) and of sufficiently high resolution. Please submit each photo as a clearly file-named separate file attachment. If submitting an article, please include a recent author photo – as a ‘supplementary item’. (See specification for photographs above.)

The author’s full affiliation, e-mail and correspondence address are also included at the end of the article to enable readers to contact the author, so please include this when submitting your contribution. If there is more than one author, supply the above but only the corresponding author’s full address will be included – please note who this is. With multiple authors, individual photos or a group photo may be provided, but if there are too many authors there may not be room to include photos of them all. Please supply ORCID IDs for all co-authors if possible.

It is recommended that authors register (free) with Kudos. UKSG has partnered with Kudos to help our authors increase the visibility of their articles. You can read more here: .


21 August 2019